To a World Where Borders Wane THE POETIC EXUBERANCE AND BASHABI FRASER’S THE HOMING BIRD
Through an expression of her/his own worldview and ideology, the poet is able to voice the ‘universal, human experience’ (Parthasarathy 11) interrogating the hypothesis of ‘marginality’ ‘to discover or posit a literary cultural tradition to which the Indian English poetry could be said to being’ (Paniker 12, 13). The English language is ‘a potent vehicle of progressive thought and passion’ for writers to voice their creative aspirations (Bose 515) through a creative homogeneity involving a cultural comprehension between the East and the West towards a ubiquitous magnitude by exploring the secrets of existence and discovering “the principle of unity in nature not through the help of meditation or abstract logic, but by boldly crossing barriers of diversity and peeping behind the screen” (“The Meeting” 379). Rabindranath Tagore had emphasized that the true and perfect relationship in life and society is based on love which facilitates ‘freedom
through cultivating a mutual sympathy’ as the principle ‘to solve the problem of mutual relationship’ and ‘liberate ourselves from the fetters of self and from all those passions that tend to be exclusive’ (“Freedom” 628). This essay reads Bashabi Fraser’s The Homing Bird as ‘a harmonious blending of voice, gesture and
movement, words and action, in which [Fraser’s] generosity of conduct is expressed’ (“Creative Unity” 495). This essay explores Fraser’s ‘dynamic character of the living truth’ which provided her the ‘enormous strength’ (Nehru xiii) through the canvas of her fourteen poems to judiciously address the necessity of
adhering to the integrating spirit of human unity, mutual-understanding, love and respect in this world, interrogating at once the divisive forces of society as “truth…has no dimension; it is One. Wherever our heart touches the One, in the small or the big, it finds the touch of the infinite” (“Creative Unity” 495).
Bose, Amalendu. “Bengali Writing in English in the Nineteenth Century.” The History of Bengal (1757 – 1905). 2nd ed. Ed. Narendra Krishna Sinha. Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1996. 514 – 528. Print.
Chatterjee, Debjani. Introduction. With Best Wishes from Edinburgh. Kolkata: Writers Workshop, 2001. 9 – 10. Print.
Chatterji, Suniti Kumar. Rabindranath Tagore: Three Lectures delivered before the Marathwada University in October 1963. Maharashtra: Marathwada University, 1965. Print.
Dasgupta, Sanjukta. Dilemma: A Second Book of Poems. Kolkata: Anustup, 2002. Print.
— trans. Swades: Rabindranath Tagore’s Patriotic Songs. Kolkata: Visva-Bharati, 2013. Print.
— “Surviving In My World: Growing of Dalit in Bengal.” YouTube, 30 November 2015. British Council, www.youtube.com/watch?v=_NQuevxbcpY. Accessed 26 October 2017.
— Lakshmi Unbound. Kolkata: Chitrangi, 2017. Print.
— “Rabindranath Tagore’s Daughters and the ‘New Woman.” The Statesman Festival’17 (2017): 24 – 31. Print.
Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. United Kingdom: Penguin, 1970. Print.
Fraser, Bashabi. With Best Wishes from Edinburgh. Kolkata: Writers Workshop, 2001. Print.
— Tartan and Turban. Edinburgh: Luath Press Limited, 2004. Print.
— Introduction. Bengal Partition Stories: An Unclosed Chapter. Ed. Bashabi Fraser. U.K.: Anthem Press, 2006. 1 – 57. Print.
— Introduction. Images of Life: Creative and Other Forms of Writing. Ed. Saptarshi Mallick. Kolkata: The Book World, 2014. 17 – 32. Print.
— Letters to My Mother and Other Mothers. Edinburgh: Luath Press Limited, 2015. Print.
— “The Crossing and the Conflict Zone: the Sense of (Un-) Belonging in Bengal Partition Stories.” Partition Literature: An Open Praxis. Ed. Srideep Mukherjee and Manan Kumar Mandal. Kolkata: Netaji Subhas Open University, 2016. 16 – 21. Print.
— The Homing Bird. Great Britain: Indigo Dreams Publishing, 2017. Print.
Guha, Ramachandra. Ed. Makers of Modern India. New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2012. Print.
Hasan, Mushirul. Foreword. Bengal Partition Stories: An Unclosed Chapter. Ed. Bashabi Fraser. London: Anthem Press, 2006. xiii – xvii. Print.
King, Bruce. Modern Indian Poetry in English. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987. Print.
Mallick, Saptarshi. “The Artist’s Joyful Extension: Reading Sanjukta Dasgupta’s Dilemma: A Second Book of Poems.” 2017. TS.
— Rev. of The Homing Bird, by Bashabi Fraser. Asiatic: An International Journal of Asian Literatures, Cultures and Englishes 11. 2, December 2017: 129 – 132. Web. 20 Mar. 2018.
— “Celebrating Reminiscence and Endearment: The Poetic Oeuvre of Bashabi Fraser.” 2018. TS.
Nehru, Jawaharlal. Introduction. Rabindranath Tagore 1861 – 1961: A Centenary Volume. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1961. xiii – xvi. Print.
Paniker, K. Ayyappa. Introduction. Modern Indian Poetry in English. Ed. K. Ayyappa Paniker. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1991. 11 – 19. Print.
Paranjape, Makarand. Introduction. Indian Poetry in English. Ed. Makarand Paranjape. India: Macmillan Publishers, 2009. 1 – 27. Print.
Parthasarathy, R. Introduction. Ten Twentieth Century Indian Poets. Ed. R. Parthasarathy. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2002. 1 – 11. Print.
Patke, Rajeev S. “Poetry Since Independence.” An Illustrated History of Indian Literature in English. Ed. Arvind Krishna Mehrotra. New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003. 243 – 275. Print.
Rajan, Balachandra. “Remarks on Identity and Nationality.” Literature East and West 9. 2 (1965): 91 – 94. Print.
Tagore, Rabindranath. Angel of Surplus: Some Essays and Addresses on Aesthetics. Ed. Sisirkumar Ghose. Calcutta: Visva-Bharati, 1978. Print.
— “Creative Unity.” The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore. Ed. Sisir Kumar Das. Vol. 2. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1996. 493 – 569. Print.
— “The Meeting of the East and the West.” The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore. Ed. Sisir Kumar Ghosh. Vol. 3. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1996. 376 – 379. Print.
— The Centre of Indian Culture. New Delhi: Rupa & Co., 2003. Print.
— The Religion of Man. New Delhi: Rupa Publications India Pvt. Ltd., 2005. Print.
— “Freedom.” The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore. Ed. Nityapriya Ghosh. Vol. 4. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 2007. 627 – 628. Print.
— Personality. New Delhi: Rupa Publications India Pvt. Ltd., 2007. Print.
— Of Myself. Trans. Devadatta Joardar and Joe Winter. Kolkata: Visva-Bharati Publishing Department, 2009. Print.
(Dedication: I dedicate this essay to Dr Nizara Hazarika, Associate Professor of English, Sonapur College, Assam for her enthusiastic inspiration. )